Premature rupture of membranes: causes, characteristics, how to know & deal with it –

Premature rupture of membranes can be an indication that you have to give birth by caesarean section, Mother. Recognizing the causes and characteristics of ruptured membranes is very important to prevent and overcome them.

Premature rupture of membranes in medical terms is called Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM). According to a review at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), premature rupture of membranes is the rupture of the membranes before delivery or before 37 weeks of gestation.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Specialist Doctor at Eka Hospital Cibubur, dr. Alexander Mukti, Sp.OG., said that rupture of the amniotic fluid can cause a small amount of amniotic fluid. In fact, this amniotic fluid serves to protect the fetus in the womb.



“If the amniotic fluid runs out, the fetus will definitely be in trouble because the central blood flow to the fetus is reduced. The point is that it’s all about oxygen, if the amniotic fluid runs out, the umbilical cord will be pinched, thus disrupting the oxygen supply to the fetus,” Alex told HaiBunda, some time ago.

Even so, a little amniotic fluid does not necessarily break, but it could be due to the unfavorable condition of the fetus. However, one of the causes of little amniotic fluid can be because the amniotic fluid has broken, Mother.

Causes of premature rupture of membranes

There are various mechanisms that cause premature rupture of membranes before labour. However, often no clear cause is identified in patients who develop this condition.

Premature rupture of membranes can occur due to physiological weakening of the amniotic membranes. The condition is exacerbated by the urge of uterine contractions.

There are several risk factors that cause premature rupture of membranes according to the NIH and quoted from the Medine Plus page, namely:

Infection of the uterus, cervix, or vagina. History of premature rupture of membranes in a previous pregnancy. Vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester. History of previous surgery or cervical biopsy. Excessive stretching of the amniotic sac due to too much amniotic fluid or having more than one baby. Nutritional deficiencies of copper and ascorbic acid. Low body mass index. Use of illegal drugs or smoking.

Fetus illustrationIllustration Janin/ Photo: Getty Images/iStockphoto/janulla

Characteristics of premature rupture of membranes

Ruptured membranes can be characterized by distinctive features, namely:

Discharge that won’t stop from the vagina Liquid that comes out slowly then becomes profuse Experiencing abnormal vaginal discharge (white discharge) Bleeding in the vagina Feeling pressure in the pelvis

Amniotic fluid is usually colorless and smells like urine. Mother can analyze it by seeing and smelling the smell that comes out.

Diagnosis of premature rupture of membranes

If you suspect premature rupture of the membranes, the doctor will usually carry out several tests to turn off and make a diagnosis. Launching from Healthline, here are some tests to diagnose premature rupture of membranes:

1. Vaginal secretion analysis test

This test is done to determine whether the fluid that comes out is amniotic fluid. This test will look for certain substances or characteristics that are normally found in the amniotic fluid.

2. Tes pH

This test involves testing the pH of a vaginal fluid sample. Normal vaginal pH is between 4.5 and 6.0. Amniotic fluid has a higher pH from 7.1 to 7.3. If the waters have broken, the pH of the vaginal fluid sample will be higher than normal.

3. Tes nitrazin

This test is performed by placing a drop of fluid obtained from the vagina onto a paper strip containing nitrazine dye. The strip changes color depending on the pH of the liquid. The strip will turn blue if the pH is greater than 6.0 and this means that the membrane has most likely ruptured.

4. Square

If the waters rupture prematurely, the fluid mixed with estrogen will create patterns under the microscope due to salt crystallization. A few drops of fluid will be placed on a microscope slide and observed under a microscope to see if amniotic fluid is actually coming out of the vagina.

Another test to diagnose involves checking for vaginal discharge. Once premature rupture of membranes is confirmed, additional tests may be performed to assess the condition of the fetus.

Ultrasound illustrationUltrasound illustration/ Photo: Getty Images/iStockphoto/

Complications of premature rupture of membranes

Premature rupture of membranes can cause complications, not only for the mother but also for the fetus when it is born. Following are the complications of premature rupture of membranes:

Infection of the mother and fetus, and risk of infected uterus (chorioamnionitis) Preterm delivery Respiratory distress syndrome in the infant Intraventricular hemorrhage Fetal lung hypoplasia Risk of delivery by caesarean section

Premature rupture of membranes before the 24th week is rare. However, this often results in fetal death due to underdeveloped lungs. Even if the baby survives, he is at risk for long-term problems, such as chronic lung disease, developmental problems, hydrocephalus and cerebral palsy.

Treatment of premature rupture of membranes

Handling premature rupture of membranes will depend on the gestational age, the condition of the fetus, and the condition of the mother. In general, there are two treatment options, namely giving birth or waiting for birth.

This waiting time is done by providing medication that can delay delivery. The following is a complete explanation regarding the handling of premature rupture of membranes:

1. Full-term pregnant women (37 weeks or more)

At this gestational age, Mother can continue labor and prevention of Group B Streptococcus disease must be given as indicated.

2. Gestational age 34 to 36 weeks

According to Sanford Health, two-fifths of women at this stage will have their baby within a week. Many will give birth within 48 hours. The delivery process can be carried out if the hospital has a neonatal care room.

3. Gestational age less than 34 weeks

Labor may be carried out by induction if it is certain that the fetal lungs are mature. Treatment will also be given, such as antibiotics, steroid injections for lung development, and drugs to prevent contractions. The doctor will also monitor the condition of the fetus regularly through ultrasound.

Can premature rupture of membranes be prevented?

Premature rupture of membranes cannot always be prevented. However, lifestyle changes to be healthy can reduce the risk, Mother.

Routine examinations during pregnancy are needed to ensure that the condition of the amniotic fluid is good, as well as the condition of the fetus. Don’t forget to talk to your doctor about using drugs during pregnancy.

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See also all the sundries of blood coagulation during pregnancy, in the following video:

[Gambas:Video Haibunda]


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