BNPT’s Director of Prevention Brigadier General Ahmad Nurwahid told VOA, Tuesday (21/9) as an example for Jamaah Islamiyah only, based on the statement of its leader Para Wijayanto, who recorded as many as six thousand people. This has not been added to the number of sympathizers.
“Not to mention JAD (Jamaah Ansarud Daulah), then other groups, for example Jamaah Ansarul Khilafah (JAK), then East Indonesia Mujahideen (MIT), West Indonesia Mujahidin (MIB), then Islamic Jihad Forum (FJI). Radical groups, including the Mujahideen Council, also support the activities of this movement. So the estimation of the entire terror network and its sympathizers is the result of our analysis with investigators, “said Ahmad.
Judging from their activities in cyberspace, continued Ahmad, members and sympathizers of various terror groups in Indonesia have committed takfiri or disbelieved in other people who disagree. They have also declared themselves as anti-government, pro-khilafah or anti-Pancasila figures.
Ahmad added that members and sympathizers of these various terror groups also always upload support for international terrorist networks, such as ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) and Al-Qaida.
According to Ahmad, BNPT together with the Special Detachment (Densus) 88 Anti-terror Police continue to monitor these members and sympathizers.
But the scale of priority is those who have already entered the terrorist organization with the indicator is pledging allegiance to the leader or ustadnya, involved in exclusive studies, undergoing war training and so on.
If these indicators are met, then Densus 88 arrests them in accordance with Law Number 5 of 2018 concerning the Crime of Terrorism. Since this regulation came into effect three years ago, 1,300 suspected terrorists have been arrested.
Ahmad explained that the approach taken by the security forces towards members and sympathizers of terrorist organizations in Indonesia is through a counterintelligence approach, a deradicalization approach, an ideological approach, a counter-narrative approach, and a humanitarian approach.
Ahmad emphasized that radicalism and extremism are concepts that animate terrorism. Both are understandings that are a phase towards acts of terrorism. But not all radical or extreme views are involved in terror networks or carry out terror.
Talking about the issue of radicalism, according to Ahmad, it has decreased significantly. Those that are included in the index of potential for radicalism are those who are pro-khilafah, anti-Pancasila, legitimate anti-government.
Anti means hating the state and the legitimate government by building a sense of distrust among the people towards the government.
Another indicator is an intolerant attitude towards diversity, exclusiveness, anti-culture and local wisdom.
Ahmad added, using a scale of 0-100, in 2017, the index of potential for radicalism in Indonesia reached a score of 55. Then in 2019, the score dropped to 38. Then at the end of last year it fell again to 14.
This decline was triggered by massive arrests of suspected terrorists, disclosure of terrorism financing.
According to Ahmad, after the security forces succeeded in killing MIT leader Ali Kalora and his colleague Jaka Ramadan, there were four more MIT members, namely Askar alias Jaid alias Pak Guru, Nae alias Galuh alias Mukhlas, Ahmad gazali alias Ahmad Panjang, and Suhardin alias Hasan Pranata.
The Most Effective Strategy
Terrorism observer from Aceh’s Malikussaleh University, Al Chaidar said the most effective strategy to deal with terrorism in Indonesia as exemplified by the first Detachment 88 Head Surya Dharma Salim was the approach to the terrorist family and that was the most successful.
“The family approach is very essential because what terror convicts think about is their family, their wife’s children, their brothers and sisters. As far as I know, the BNPT program has escaped from that,” said Al Chaidar.
The approach is in the form of providing assistance, taking an emotional cultural approach. Even Surya Dharma Salim has done counter discourse.
He gave an example of the counter discourse, such as an analysis of the terrorist version of jihad against a correct and comprehensive analysis of jihad.
Al Chaidar added that the BNPT program is still oriented towards the old approach of soft and hard approaches. if the new approach is a multi-sectoral approach and that must be done in countering terrorism.
According to Al Chaidar, Jamaah Islamiyah has switched from jihad to da’wah and humanitarian activities. So Jamaah Islamiyah can no longer be considered a terrorist organization. Meanwhile, JAD, JAK, MIT, and the Free Papua Organization are still terrorist organizations.
Al Chaidar said those who are still affiliated to ISIS have felt ashamed because of the Taliban ruling in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, ISKP (Islamic State of Khorasan Province) was defeated.
Al Chaidar concluded that terrorist organizations in Indonesia had begun to weaken because they could no longer find a clearer ideological basis. Massive arrests of terrorist leaders also contributed to the weakening of the terrorism movement in Indonesia. [fw/em]